Labor market policy
The main normative documents that determine the labor market policy in Europe are: The Employment Strategy 2004-2010, the Employment Promotion Act, the National Employment Action Plan (to be prepared annually).
The documents are developed and implemented in accordance with the specific needs of the national labor market and are fully in line with the European Employment Strategy.
Within the framework of active labor market policy, various and well targeted measures and programs are used to improve employability, entrepreneurship development; promoting the adaptability of employees and businesses; promoting equal opportunity policies. They are of national or regional importance, as well as programs addressing the specific needs of persons in the labor market.
Significant progress has been made in a number of areas in the implementation of the European Employment Strategy in Eastern European countries.
The opportunities for promoting entrepreneurship have been expanded by facilitating access to start-up capital, building a national network of business centers, implementing measures and programs to support self-employment, engaging in training to acquire managerial knowledge and skills and providing a wide range of information, technical and consulting services. services.
Significant progress has been made with regard to the provision of free vocational training for registered unemployed persons, training of employees, literacy, motivation, professional information and counseling. Access to training has been improved, and opportunities for private providers of training and vocational training have increased. The quality of education and training offered is being improved in order to reduce the mismatch between the demand for and supply of certain qualifications and certifications.
A life-cycle approach to promoting work-based activity and adaptability is being promoted here as actions to better reconcile work-to-life, create employment opportunities for young people and encourage participation in employment and longer working lives. the older ones.
The regulatory framework for actions promoting the improvement of adaptability of workers and businesses through training, promotion of territorial and occupational mobility, public discussions on the possibilities of combining flexibility and security has improved.
Institutions developing and implementing employment policies have evolved The Employment Agency has upgraded the quality and range of employment services it provides to employers and job seekers in order to become an effective and efficient working organization, a major intermediary in the labor market.
Social and civic dialogue are developing, enhancing the ability of social partners to influence employment policy by broadening their participation in social dialogue and building active inter-institutional links between partners in the labor market.
Bulgaria is a country with a relatively low standard of living and income. The economic growth realized in recent years has had a positive impact on the dynamics of income of the population, but not sufficiently adequate to the achieved results. This poses serious challenges to income policy.
The challenges of income policy can be summarized in the following headings:
- Overcoming the lagging behind in population income growth;
- Enhancing the social protection of low-income groups in society;
- Achieving better wage linkage to economic performance.
The challenges presented necessitate the pursuit of an active policy that will, on the one hand, lead to gradual convergence in income levels with other EU members in the long term and, on the other, to create effective mechanisms to maintain social balances, and in particular to assist people with low income.
Education, training and science policy
The policy in the field of education and training is determined by the socio-economic priorities of the country, the peculiarities of the transition to a market-type economy, the state of the education system in European countries and the requirements regarding EU membership, as well as its requirements.
The new knowledge economy poses many challenges to the education and training system. Europe has achieved great success in this area compared to other areas where countries’ progress is being monitored, but education and training reform is very necessary if Europe is to maintain its comparatively good competitive position. Creating new knowledge in the form of new products, techniques and technologies requires creative thinking, analytical skills and lifelong learning from the workforce. This implies a quality reform of the education system in order to acquire basic knowledge and skills in primary education and creative and critical thinking by young people in secondary and higher education.
Primary education must ensure that all children are covered, because the new European economy within the EU will not be able to provide illiteracy. In secondary education, the emphasis should be placed on learning a foreign language, computer literacy, teamwork, and generally developing a new worldview. A whole new concept is needed for the purposes of the new Bulgarian economy and in the field of vocational and continuing education. The rapid development of technology, the globalization of the financial and commodity markets, the need for continuous product renewal, all require flexible and effective methods of vocational training, not only initially, but constantly, for all employees at all levels. Higher education and related scientific and applied research are in dire need of change in order for the Bulgarian economy to have an internal human resource on the one hand, but also for our universities to be competitive at European and American higher education institutions so that young people who want to get a good education are leaving the country en masse.
To meet these challenges, the Ministry of Education and Science has identified as its main goals in its education policy equal access to education, in which it outlined the main priorities in the field of education, training and science, in the direction of:
- Ensuring the quality of education to achieve a knowledge-based society;
- Improving conditions for access to education;
- Encouraging lifelong learning;
- Introduction of information and communication technologies into education;
- Optimizing extracurricular and extracurricular activities